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Beginning with PDF version 1.5, indirect objects may also be located in special streams known as object streams.
This technique reduces the size of files that have large numbers of small indirect objects and is especially useful for Tagged PDF.
PDF has (as of version 1.6) 24 graphics state properties, of which some of the most important are: As in Post Script, vector graphics in PDF are constructed with paths.
Paths are usually composed of lines and cubic Bézier curves, but can also be constructed from the outlines of text.
(Less commonly, a raster image may be embedded directly in a page description as an inline image.) Images are typically filtered for compression purposes.
Post Script is a page description language run in an interpreter to generate an image, a process requiring many resources.
Raster images in PDF (called Image XObjects) are represented by dictionaries with an associated stream.
The dictionary describes properties of the image, and the stream contains the image data.
At the end of a PDF file is a trailer introduced with the There are two layouts to the PDF files: non-linear (not "optimized") and linear ("optimized").
Non-linear PDF files consume less disk space than their linear counterparts, though they are slower to access because portions of the data required to assemble pages of the document are scattered throughout the PDF file.